Terms & Concepts

  1. cell structure (check figure)
    1. Nucleus: administration office
    2. smooth endoplasmic reticulum: high way
    3. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    4. Mitochondrion: power plant
    5. Cytoplasm
    6. Centriole: combines the surrounding structure to be the centrosome
    7. Lysosome: trash can, and recycle system
    8. plasma membrane
    9. Golgi complex: post office
  2. Secretory
    1. Produced at RER
    2. Wrapped at Golgi
  3. Cell division cycle: For neurons, G0 is when the cells decides to divide or differentiate
    1. Interphase a. G0->G1->S->G2
    2. Mitosis
  4. Cell membrane
    1. G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR): 7 transmembrane a. G proteins have three subunits: alpha beta gamma, which are inactive if no GPCR’s are in action b. Receptors for G Protein and important for signaling pathway: ligand binds to GPCR -> GPCR conformational change -> alpha sub-unit exchange its binded GDP for a GTP (now it binds a GTP, and both alpha subunit and beta-gamma complex are active) -> regulate target proteins which are responsible for second messengers -> GTP on alpba subunit then hydrolyze to GDP -> everything comes back together to the original state
  5. Protein phosphatase: removes phosphate group from phosphorylated amino acid.
  6. Phosphorylation: transfer phosphate group to enzymes
  7. Kinase: transfer phosphate group from high-energy to another place
  8. Tyrosine kinase: transfer phosphate group to a protein
  9. Homeobox: a dna sequence that regulates anatomical development


  1. Western blot: separate protein by length of polypeptides a. Detergent -> gel electrophoresis -> transfer & incubation
  2. Northern blot: RNA
  3. Southern blot: DNA a. DNA fragments->gel electrophoresis->ultraviolet
  4. PCR a. DNA fragmentation->PCR machine->gel electrophoresis->ultraviolet
  5. Clone: somatic cell nucleus + zygote (without nucleus)

Receptors and ligands

  1. Agonist a. Has the same effect as a neurotransmitter
  2. Antagonist a. Doesn’t really work like neurotransmitter but binds to receptor


  1. Process: Fertilized egg -> caps -> gastrulation-> neural plate->neural tube-> Anterior-posterior patterning (now we have differences between two ends)-> Dorsal-ventral patterning (differences between dorsal and ventral)
  2. Gastrulation: three layers : ectoderm, endoderm, then mesoderm
  3. Polarization of Neurons: a. 5 stages: first 2 symmetric, 3 with axon begins, 4 growing in length and branching, 5 morphogenesis and synapse b. Filopodia: c. Lamellipodia: d. Framework: tublin + actin
  4. ECM: extracellular matrix: a. Scaffolding the organ

Planted: by ;

Lei Ma (2020). 'Biology', Intelligence, 05 April. Available at: