1. chronic pain, depression, sleep.
  2. Pain: “adapative” if it works to prevent futhure damage to tissue; “disruptive” if it goes beyond the biological functionalities.
  3. Disruptive pain or chronic pain usually cooccurs with depressive symptosm.

Quote from 1

Among people with a chronic pain diagnosis, sleep disturbance is a common clinical symptom, with 50% to 90% of people with pain reporting sleep disturbances of some description, with insomnia being the most common problem.

Fig.4 in Boakye20161 privides good information about the intercorrelations between symptoms and physiological changes.

References and Notes

  1. Boakye, P. A., Olechowski, C., Rashiq, S., Verrier, M. J., Kerr, B., Witmans, M., … Dick, B. D. (2016). A critical review of neurobiological factors involved in the interactions between chronic pain, depression, and sleep disruption Clinical Journal of Pain, 32(4), 327–336. ↩︎ ↩︎

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Lei Ma (2020). 'Sleep', Intelligence, 05 April. Available at: