Biological neural networks give us human intelligence. Are biological neural networks special out of the numerous different kinds of network systems, e.g., internet, social networks, and artifical neural networks?

I prefer to believe they are not special just with the right topology.

So what is a list of all systems that could function as a neural network?

  1. Social networks. We could model the society as an information processing network. It is extremely complicated, at least more complicated than the models in physics. Could we redesign the society so it forms a more intelligent collective identity?
  2. The whole ecological system on the Earth is like a web of lives, aka, Gaia hypothesis.
  3. Networks that connects time instead of space is also an interesting idea. If we have nodes $N_i$ located at different time $t_i$ and the nodes are connected. Now we have a network which can be analyzed. However, for casuality reasons we should limit the network to propagate information in one direction.

Planted: by ;

Lei Ma (2020). 'Pan-Intelligence', Intelligence, 10 April. Available at: